This Spring 2013 course emphasizes individual projects and class discussion. The course will discuss the ecology of the Pacific Northwest region, explore underlying scientific principles, and ask these questions: How has human history, including the dispossession of Native Americans, influenced land use and ecological and agricultural changes in the northwest? How did the river and mountain geography of the Columbia Basin influence the development of pre-1800 indigenous civilization? What are the chief ecological issues, past and present, in this region? What was the immediate and long-term Native American response to the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804-06 and its aftermath? How have power dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers affected salmon populations and regulations perpetuating Indian fishing rights? What cultural and political developments led to the Nez Perce trek of 1877? How have Indian reservations and land use patterns changed through the 20th century? What do we know about invasive species, rare and endangered populations, and the effects of climate change in the northwest? How has federal land and Indian policy in the northwest evolved? The course will make use of readings in northwest ecology and Native American history and will include seminar-type discussions that focus on individual projects and presentations.