In 1492, the Spanish conquest forever changed indigenous America and created a 'new' world. European imperial discourses collided with resistance movements and the emerging voices of oppressed peoples, including indigenous communities, women, and mestizos. This course traces the tensions between imperialist and resistance discourses during both the colonial period and today. We will analyze the 'fighting words' that consolidated the Spanish empire and later opened the path to Latin American independence. Tracing the impact of these struggles on the Americas today, we will examine how subaltern communities strive to make their voices heard in the global context.