This course covers approaches to hand made filmmaking using the optical printer, analog animation and manipulation of film through hand processing and "direct animation" techniques. The course provides detailed instruction for the using the optical printer and the animation stand for expressive and exploratory purposes. The course assumes a basic knowledge of 16mm filmmaking so that students extend their knowledge and mastery of more advanced production and post-production techniques. Films will be viewed in class presenting a variety of approaches to optical printing and animation as a medium for artists. Students will be expected to complete weekly exercises and a semester long independent project. While computers may be a part of a student's working process, this course does not cover computer animation programs and students will not be allowed to do final projects that are primarily based in their use. Each student will be expected to research an artist and/or analyze a film, write a 5-8 page paper and make an oral presentation to the class.