Every society offers public rituals, formal instruction and places of sacred memory whose purpose is to foster a common political identity like nationalism. Some of these devices appear natural and timeless; others are obviously invented. Some exist in peaceful periods; others are meant to galvanize people for warfare. This course will examine such expressions of political culture as history textbooks, both in the US and in Europe, where they are intended to promote harmony among former enemies; children's literature under the Nazis; American monuments and civic ceremonies; and recent attempts to create "democratic citizenship" in post-communist Central Europe. Students will write short essays, carry out a group project and write a final paper.