This course focuses on the biological and cultural components of reproduction from an evolutionary and cross-cultural perspective. Beginning with the evolution of the pelvis, this course examines the nutritional problems, growth and developmental problems, health problems, and the trauma that can affect successful childbirth. The birth process will be studied for reproductive females in the ancient world, historical trends in obstetrics, and worldwide rates of maternal mortality today will also be used to understand the risks that some birthers face. Birthing customs and beliefs will be examined for indigenous females in a number of different cultural contexts. We will examine the technocratic model of childbirth to understand the changing focus of birth as female centered to a medical condition, which needs to be controlled. In addition, we will consider changing understandings of the birthing body. Students will be required to present and discuss material and to work on a single large research project throughout the semester that relates to the course topic.